Is January Too Late To Get A Flu Shot – During the fall of 2022, many states reported earlier than normally observed respiratory virus activity. Information on the effect of early influenza activity was limited.
After several less severe influenza seasons, Tennessee’s 2022-23 season is characterized by earlier activity, higher rates of pediatric hospitalizations and higher rates of symptomatic illness among adults or among children than in past seasons.
Is January Too Late To Get A Flu Shot
To prevent influenza and severe influenza complications, all persons ≥6 months of age should be vaccinated, avoid contact with sick persons, and take influenza antivirals if recommended and prescribed.
The Connection Between Heart Disease And Flu
Influenza season typically begins in October and peaks between December and February (1); However, Tennessee’s 2022-23 influenza season began in late September and was characterized by high pediatric hospitalization rates in November. This report describes a field trial conducted in Tennessee in November 2022, following reports of increased influenza hospitalizations. Data from surveillance networks, patient surveys, and whole genome sequencing of influenza virus specimens were analyzed to assess influenza activity and secondary disease risk. Influenza activity among all age groups increased earlier than usual, and the rate of influenza-related hospitalizations among children remained high in November, reaching 12.6 per 100,000 children <5 years of age, comparable to the peaks typically seen during high-intensity periods. it was. Circulating influenza viruses were genetically identical to vaccine components. Among people who received tests for influenza at outpatient clinics, children were twice as likely to receive positive influenza test results than adults. Among household contacts exposed to someone with influenza, children are more than twice as likely to become ill compared to adults. As the flu season continues, it is important for all people, especially those at high risk for severe illness, to protect themselves from the flu. To prevent influenza and severe influenza complications, all persons ≥6 months of age should be vaccinated, avoid contact with sick persons, and take influenza antivirals if recommended and prescribed.*
Field testing was conducted in November 2022 to understand early influenza activity and identify the most affected groups in 14 of 95 clusters in Central Tennessee.
Weekly, age-stratified data on emergency department visits for influenza-like illness (ILI-ED) and influenza-related hospitalizations were obtained from the Electronic Surveillance System for Early Notification of Community-Based Epidemiology (ESSENCE) and FluSurv-NET surveillance. system,
For influenza-related hospitalizations, a probability distribution constructed from the three highest weekly rates of each previous season (2) was used to define age group-specific severity thresholds at the 50th (moderate), 90th (high), and 98th (very high) . ) percentages. Hospitalization data from earlier periods were adjusted for underestimation using data on age group-specific screening practices; Data for the 2022-23 season has not been prepared. All observational data were restricted from 2 October 2022 to 7 January 2023, recorded on 12 January 2023.
Why Can You Still Get Influenza If You’ve Had A Flu Shot?
Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC) and Mid-Cumberland Regional Health Department clinics provided the Tennessee Department of Health (TDH) with information on individuals who received tests for influenza. These data were combined with influenza vaccination records for the current season obtained from the Tennessee Immunization Information System. Individuals with a positive or negative influenza test result between November 4–18, 2022 were invited to complete a survey asking about their illness, facilitated by REDCap electronic data capture tools hosted at TDH** (3, 4). Those who received a positive influenza test result were invited to complete a second, follow-up survey, asking about illness in household contacts, one week after their test.
Influenza-positive specimens collected by VUMC clinics between November 4-18 were submitted for whole-genome sequencing to characterize circulating influenza viruses.
Factors associated with positive influenza test results in patients tested at participating clinics were identified using logistic regression. Characteristics of household contacts were compared using logistic regression accounting for household clusters. Secondary attack rates for symptomatic disease among household contacts adjusted for age, vaccination status, and household size were estimated by a chain binomial model, assuming an infectious period of 2 days from onset of symptoms and an incubation period of 2 days ( 5) ) Descriptive and regression analysis of outpatient data was performed using SAS software (version 9.4; SAS Institute) and chain binomial modeling was performed in C. This activity was reviewed by , TDH, and VUMC and conducted in accordance with applicable federal law and policy. .
Between October 2, 2022 and January 7, 2023, rates of ILI-ED visits and influenza-related hospitalizations began to rise and reached higher levels earlier than in recent influenza seasons. These trends were most pronounced among people under 18 years of age, where ILI-ED visits in this group accounted for 31% of all visits during the week ending November 26, 2022 (range of peak levels in previous periods=14%-34%). Weekly pediatric influenza-related hospitalizations were 12.6 per 100,000 children <5 years of age and 6.9 per 100,000 <18 years of age, exceeding the 90th percentile (high intensity) and approaching the weekly 98th percentile (very high). Rates for children reported in previous influenza seasons (Figure). In comparison, among persons of all ages, ILI-ED reached 15% of all visits (maximum range in previous periods=5%-13%), and influenza-related hospitalizations exceeded moderate severity.
Bless You! Meet The Flu Hunters Trying To Stop The Next Pandemic In Its Tracks
Among 4,626 individuals who underwent influenza testing at outpatient clinics between November 4 and 18, 2022, 2,164 (47%) were children, who were more likely to have a positive test result (33%; 2,164 of 714). than adults (20%; 2, 483 of 462) (p<0.001). Seasonal influenza vaccine coverage was low in both children (23%; 499 of 2,164) and adults (34%; 2,462 of 830) tested for influenza. Among 332 specimens with complete sequence data, 179 (54%) were classified as A(H3N2)3C.2a1b2a.2 and 153 (46%) as A(H1N1)pdm096B.1A5a.2; All vaccine components were genetically identical.
Among the 489 individuals who responded to the survey (11% of the 4,626 patients contacted for the survey), 269 (55%) were reported to be children. Of the 238 individuals with a positive influenza test result within 48 hours of symptom onset, 109 (46%) received influenza antiviral medication. Children were less likely to be treated (41%; 63 of 155) than adults (55%; 46 of 83) (p = 0.03).
One hundred eighty-five persons with influenza completed the follow-up household survey.*** Of their 480 household contacts, 151 (31%) reported having any illness before or after the respondent’s illness, of whom 83 (55%) had symptoms. has been reported. A fever and cough or sore throat are consistent with an influenza-like illness. In a univariate logistic regression model, household contacts reporting any illness were more likely to be children (odds ratio [OR]=1.85; 95% CI=1.45–2.35) or share a bedroom with a sick person (OR=2.11; 95% CI =2.59–2.80) in the week before or after the respondent’s positive influenza test date compared with non-ill contacts. In the transmission model, children were more likely to become ill than adults (adjusted OR=2.50; 95% CI=1.55–4.03) (Table). After adjustment for household size and reported vaccination status, the secondary attack rate was 11.9% (range=6.1%–22.0%) among pediatric contacts and 5.1% (range=2.7%–9.4%) among adult contacts.
Influenza activity in Tennessee began earlier than in previous seasons in the 2022-23 season, with higher rates of outpatient visits for influenza and influenza-related hospitalizations among children. The study found that children seeking outpatient care were more likely to have a positive influenza test result than adults, and that the rate of pediatric influenza-related hospitalizations in late November reached levels similar to peak activity during recent high-severity influenza seasons. Among household contacts, with the finding that secondary illness occurred more frequently in children than in adults, these results suggest that children will experience a greater impact of influenza in the 2022–23 season.
Winter Vaccinations Update
Influenza activity appears to be decreasing in Tennessee and nationally since early December 2022; However, influenza continues to circulate and the season lasts several weeks (6). Although anyone can become infected with influenza viruses, young children, older adults, and people with certain underlying medical conditions are at increased risk of influenza-related illness and death (7). The best way to protect against influenza and influenza-related complications, including children, is the seasonal influenza vaccine. All individuals ≥6 months of age should receive a seasonal influenza vaccine to protect themselves for the remainder of the influenza season. In addition, everyday preventive measures such as reducing interactions with sick people; Avoiding others when sick; Avoiding touching one’s mouth, eyes and nose; Frequent hand washing; And wearing face masks when circulating respiratory viruses are high can help reduce the risk of contracting influenza and other respiratory viruses.
Influenza-related hospitalization rates in Tennessee, especially among children, were higher during October-November 2022 than during those months in recent influenza seasons. Hospitalization rates among children in Tennessee are similar to those seen among children nationally (8). Influenza antiviral drugs should be prioritized for hospitalized persons and all patients at high risk for complications of influenza (including children younger than 2 years of age and persons with certain medical conditions); These drugs may reduce the risk of influenza-related complications (9).
The findings of this report are subject to at least five limitations. First, the generalizability of these findings is limited because the population represents a sample from Middle Tennessee recruited over a 2-week period in November and only 11% of invited participants.